Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Thoughts About God for Our Time: What Would Heschel Say??

Several years ago Rabbi Laureate (that's the title his congregation gave him upon retirement)Harold Kushner, spoke to rabbis gathered in a plenum at the Rabbinical Assembly convention. Kushner is the much celebrated writer/theologian of numerous significant books, most notably "When Bad Things Happen to Good People". In addressing the subject of writing about religious topics, and looking to have the book become a best seller, Kushner commented that Abraham Joshua Heschel was the only writer to dare to put "God" in a book's title. For anyone else, he implied, doing so would be the kiss of death. Though the subject may clearly be faith and/or belief, only Heschel's reputation preceded him such that putting "God" in the title would not deter sales.

Abraham Joshua Heschel is also one of the rare authors on subjects of faith from a Jewish point of view who attracted readers from all faith groups. His thinking and teachings are so well respected that he continues to be quoted in speeches from a broad spectrum of theologians.

That is the case in a New York Times op-ed piece yesterday by Emory University philosophy Professor George Yancy. The Times doesn't often publish op-ed contributions on the subject of God. Yancy also did not fear putting God in the title of his piece...

"Is Your God Dead", June 19, 2017 New York Times opinion

"Is your God Dead?

"I don't mean the God of the philosophers or the scholars, but as Blaise Pascal said, the 'God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob.' With no disrespect, I hope the question comes as a jolt. And without being outrageous or quick to accuse me of 'blasphemy,' know, too, that I am hopeful monotheist. I might even be called a Christian, only I continue, every day of my life, to fail. Friedrich Nietzsche's observation weighs heavily on me: 'There was only one Christian and he died on the cross.' Call me a failed and broken Christian, but a Christian nevertheless.

"So, is your God dead? Have you buried God in the majestic, ornamental tombs of your churches, synagogues and mosques? Perhaps prosperity theology, boisterous, formalistic and mechanical prayer rituals, and skillful oratory have hastened the need for a eulogy.

"Perhaps by remaining in your 'holy' places, you have sacrificed looking in the face of your neighbor on the street. You know the one: the one who smells 'bad' because she hasn't bathed in days; the one who carries her home on her body; the one who begs. Surely you've seen that 'unholy' face. I've seen you suddenly look away, making sure not to make eye contact with the 'unclean.' Perhaps you're preoccupied with texting, consumed by work or a family matter. Then again, perhaps it's prayer time and you need to face east, or perhaps you're too focused on holy communion as you make your way to church. Your refusal to stop, to linger to look into her eyes, has already does its damage. Your body has already left a mark in the absence, in its fleeing the scene.

"My hands are also dirty. I'm guilty of missing the opportunity to recognize something of the divine in the face of the Other on the street. I'm pretty sure I looked away when I caught a glimpse of a homeless man approaching the other day. How different is this from those who walked by the beaten and the abandoned man in the parable of the good Samaritan? I failed to see the homeless man as a neighbor.

"When we turn away like this we behave as if our bodies had boundaries, as if our skin truly separated us from the Other. But what if, as I would argue, our bodies don't have strict edges? What if we could develop a new way of seeing the body that reveals that we are always already touching, that we are inextricably linked to a larger institutional and social body that binds us all?

"In meditating on these questions, I have found that the prophetic voice of Abraham Joshua Heschel (1907-1972), a Polish-born Jewish-American rabbi and activist, can help us toward an answer. Heschel, who studied in Germany with Martin Buber, and later became a close friend of Marin Luther King, Jr., warned frequently of the dangers of theological and religious shallowness, of our tendency to 'worry more about the purity of dogma than about the integrity of love.'

"Heschel cautions against 'an outward compliance with ritual laws, strict observance mingled with dishonesty, the pedantic performance of rituals as a form of opportunism.' And while there are many who worship in churches, synagogues and mosques, who understand that religious truth must be lived, who make a point of looking into the eyes of the woman on the street and shows her mercy, too many of us refuse to look, to stop.

"As the religious scholar Elisabeth T. Vasko writes, 'to be human is to be a person in relation.' And it is this social and existential relationality that ties you to, and implicates you in, the life of that destitute woman. Heschel writes, 'How dare we come before God with our prayers when we commit atrocities against the one image we have of the divine: human beings?' If there is a shred of life left in your God, full resuscitation might begin with remaining in the presence of that suffering face. If your God is dead, the possibility for a resurrection might be found in attending to the pain and sorrow of that image of the divine there on the street.

..."Indeed, King wrote in his letter from the Birmingham jail, 'Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.' Heschel suggests that we should be mortified for the inadequacy and superficiality of our anguish when we witness the suffering of others, the sort of anguish that should make us weep until our eyes are red and swollen and bring sleepless nights and agonizing days. He writes, 'We are a generation that has lost the capacity for outrage.'

"I have been troubled by the lack of religious and theological outrage against national and global poverty, white racism and supremacism, sexism, classicism, homophobia, bullying, building walls, 'alternative facts,' visa/immigration bans and xenophobia. Heschel reminds us that when we establish a way of life predicated upon a lie, 'the world can turn into a nightmare.' He makes it clear that the Holocaust did not emerge suddenly. 'it was in the making for several generations. It had its origin in a lie: that the Jew was responsible for all social ills, for all personal frustrations. Decimate the Jews and all problems would be solved.'

"Those signs are here, too. Jewish people I've met, whose parents escaped Hitler's tyranny, have shared with me their parents' sense of deep alarm under the Trump administration. 'Make America Great Again' is a call for law and order buttressed by a white nativist ideology. The lie upon which the Holocaust began is still with us.

"Anti-Semitism is on the rise. So is the belief that Black pathology is eroding America from within. Black people are told that we live in poverty. That our schools are no good. And we have no jobs. In addition, if we just build a wall, so this divisive logic goes, more of our problems will dissipate. After all, it is Mexicans, we are told, who are bringing drugs, crime and rapists.

"'Any god who is mine and not yours, any god concerned with me but not with you, is an idol,' Heschel writes. Think of segregated white churches during Jim Crow, or the many churches today, in our 'post-racial' moment, that continue to be de facto segregated every Sunday morning. Think, too, of the blood that has been spilled in the name of the God we claim as our own. You have all heard the underpinnings of this idolatry: 'God Bless America,' which I see as the words of a bankrupt neoliberal theology. In fact, there is something profane in that statement, which worships and calls upon a God that blesses America only.

"If there are any blessings to be had, the request, surely, mustn't be partisan. At least in Christianity, Judaism and Islam, it is believed that human beings were created in the image of God. Not just the faithful of these religions, but all humans: Syrian refugees, whom our current administration have deemed threats, were created in the image of God. Kim Jong-un, Vladimir Putin, members of the Ku Klux Klan and Bashar al-Assad all were created in the image of God. So even as we as God to bless America, surely we must ask God to bless those whom we have deemed threats or enemies. Our blessings must be scattered across the entire world, inclusive of all humanity.

"Recently, Trump speaking at Liberty University, said t a graduating class of future evangelical leaders, 'In America, we don't worship government, we worship God.' The students applauded and cheered. If what Trump said was true, then why didn't the students turn their backs to him, to protest the contradiction between the poisonous effects of his white nativism, extreme divisiveness and his 'theology'? Unless, of course, Liberty University's God is clad in a profane theological whiteness.

"When they were applauding Trump, the students were not applauding a prophetic visionary but someone with a dangerous Pharaonic mentality, one who is intemperate, self-indulgent, power hungry, unpredictable and narcissistic. Remember that the applause was for someone who refuses to take the nuclear option off the table, who said that global warming was a hoax and has not pulled out of the Paris climate agreement, who said of ISIS that he would 'bomb the shit out of 'em.'

"The graduating students at Liberty University should have been told, as Heschel wrote, that 'the age of moral mediocrity and complacency has run out. This is a time for radical commitment, for radical action.'

"Heschel, in a speech on religion and race, reminded us of the persistence of autocratic power when he stated that 'Pharaoh is not ready to capitulate. The exodus began but it is far from having been completed.' That exodus, originating with Moses and the emancipation of the Jews, as Heschel suggests, is eternal, and signifies the march toward not just an outward physical emancipation but a spiritual one--one that demands fierce self-reflection. I take it that for Heschel, all of the oppressed of the world are in need of an exodus. In another work Heschel later wrote, 'One's integrity must constantly be examined.' Bob Marley, in his song 'Exodus,' says, 'Open your eyes and look with in. Are you satisfied with the life you're living?' Some voices refuse to let us rest. King had such a voice, and so did Socrates.

"And what have we seen? I am pretty sure that no contemporary Christians have seen God, no contemporary religious Jews have seen Yahweh and no contemporary Muslims have seen Allah--certainly not face to face. Yet all of us have seen the aftermath of murdered children from war torn countries, their fragile bodies covered with blood. I am haunted by the little body of a 3-year-old Aylan Kurdi who lay dead and face down in 2015 on a Turkish beach after his family fled violence in Syria. I continue to be haunted by the murder of an unarmed Trayvon Martin in 2012. Hundreds of thousands of children around the world are suffering. We all have known about the cruel and despicable violence towards transgender individuals. We know about the magnitude of human trafficking, the magnitude of poverty, and the sickness of hatred.

"Vasco writes, 'Trough lamentation, voice is given to pain.' Yet our lamenting, our mourning for those who suffer, is far too short-lived. And our charity to those who wail in the night only temporarily eases their pain. According to Heschel, 'one may be decent and sinister, pious and sinful.' We easily forget the weight of human suffering, the agony. Heschel asks, 'If all agony were kept alive in memory, if all turmoil were told, who could endure tranquillity?' Heschel and Vasco help to remind us that we ought to be suspicious of our tranquillity.

"In fact, I would ask, what if that tranquillity, that peace of mind, rests on the rotting corpses beneath our feet? What if as we pray and rejoice in our churches, synagogues and mosques, we are throwing handfuls of dirt on God's casket? After all, prayer and rejoicing can also function as forms of narcissism, as ways to drown out the screams of the poor, the oppressed. In a story shared by Heschel's daughter, Susannah, she writes that he found praying during the Vietnam War impossible, but necessary to demonstrate. 'Whenever I open my prayer book,' he told a journalist, 'I see before me the images of children burning from napalm.'

"Heschel writes, 'The prophet's word is a scream in the night.' I wait to be awakened by that scream. I have not yet heard it. It is that scream, that deep existential lament, that will awaken us to the way we are guilty of claiming to 'love God' while forgetting the poor, refusing the refugee, building walls, banning the stranger, and praying and worshiping in insular and segregated 'sacred' spaces filled with racism, sexism, patriarchy, xenophobia, homophobia and indifference.

"We have failed to deepen our collective responsibility. Some of us will never do so. What would the world look like if believers from every major religion in every country, state, city and village, shut down the entire world for just a day? What would America look like, on that day, if we who call ourselves believers, decide to weep together, hold hands together, commit together to eradicate injustice? We might then permanently unlock our sacred doors, take a real step beyond our sanctimoniousness, and see one another face to face.

"I await the day, perhaps soon, when those who believe in the 'God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob' will lock arms and march on Washington, refusing yo live any longer under the weight of so much inhumanity. Perhaps it is time for a collective demonstration of the faithful to delay going to the Western Wall in Jerusalem, to leave the pews in churches and pray one fewer time a day. None of us is innocent. 'Above all, the prophets remind us of the moral state of a people,' Heschel reminds us. 'Few are guilty, but all are responsible.'

"In 1968, in conversation with King, Heschel asked, 'Where does God dwell in America today?' I ask myself this question today. But I do not find the answer. Heschel also asks, 'Where does moral religious leadership in American come from today?' I look, but I have not seen it. Perhaps, like Diogenes the Cynic, you'll find me carrying a lamp in the daytime. But instead of looking for an honest man, I will be looking through the catacombs of your own making, asking, 'Is your God dead?'

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Perhaps Everyone Really Is a Little Bit Jewish??!!

Many years ago a French novel titled simply "The Jews" claimed that everyone has Jewish ancestry. It satirically claimed there were Kennedy Jews and Johnson Jews. You just had to go far enough back. I thought of this when I read on a JTA News Alert about the Jewish "connection" of Otto Wambier, the young man returned home from North Korea in a coma.

It's a particularly tragic and sad story. We hope and pray for the remote possibility of a full recovery.

"Otto Wambier, American Student Released from North Korea Was Active in Hillel"

"Otto Warmbier, the University of Virginia student imprisoned by North Korea who remains in a coma since his release this week, was active at the campus Hillel and cared deeply about the Jewish community, it's rabbi recalls.

"Warmbier, 22, a Cincinnati native, was traveling on a student tour of North Korea last year when he was arrested and sentenced to 15 years of hard labor for stealing a propaganda poster.

"After international outrage and over a year of imprisonment, North Korea released him this week, saying his health had deteriorated severely. Warmbier''s doctors say he is unresponsive and has suffered extensive brain damage.

"Rabbi Jake Rubin, the University of Virginia''s Hillel director, told JTA in an email that it was another overseas trip that sealed Warmbier''s connection to the Jewish community.

"A 2014 Birthright mission to Israel, where Warmbier received a Hebrew name during a hike to Massada, left a strong impression on the young man. Following the trip he became involved with the Jewish community on campus.

"Birthright offers free trips to individuals who identify as Jewish, have at least one Jewish birth parent or have completed Jewish conversion. Rubin did not answer a question about Warmbier''s Jewish background.

"The rabbi described Warmbier as 'a beloved member of our Hillel community.'

"'He was a regular at Bagels on Lawn, celebrated Shabbat and holidays at Hillel, and even led a seder for other students that focused on issues of environmentalism and sustainability,' Rubin wrote.

"During that seder, Warmbier and another student used the Passover ritual as a way to introduce issues related to climate change.

"'What are the ten plagues of climate change? How can washing our hands remind us of the importance of water conservation? Throughout the seder we asked participants to reflect on how the story of the Exodus and the seder traditions relate to environmental challenges,' Lia Cattaneo, who led the seder with Warmbier, wrote in a 2015 blog on the Hillel website.

"Rubin recalled the joy that infused Warmbier''s day to day life.

"'In the simplest interactions Otto always found something of interest and would make you smile,' he wrote. 'At every stop on Birthright he would try some kind of new food, strike up a conversation with someone new, or find some unique thing to bargain for. He loved life and it was infectious.'

"Beyond Hillel, Warmbier was a leader on the University of Virginia campus, Rubin said. Warmbier served on the student council''s sustainability committee and spoke with a Tel Aviv councilman, Etai Pikas, about environmentalism in Israel.

"'The opportunity to hear from a man voted one of Israel''s 100 Most Influential People on his work and passion was truly remarkable,' Warmbier wrote of the meeting for Hillel published in 2015.

"Rubin described Warmbier as a person who 'was always full of life, intellectually curious, and cared deeply for his friends and community.'

"'He was always interested in learning more about the world and the people around him. He put everyone at ease with his humor and genuine interest in others,' the rabbi added. 'Otto was a leader at UVA and we are fortunate that he is a member of our community.'

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Controversial Tiny Opening to Homosexuals in Sephardi Orthodox Community

The transformation in attitudes toward homosexuality in general society is nothing short of miraculous. And in many ways the Jewish community has been in the forefront of welcoming this change. It has not occurred without significant resistance however. When the Rabbinical Assembly published its Teshuvah some dozen years ago, I established opportunities for text study and we engaged in serious conversation. Today we take this acceptance largely for granted. I have officiated at my share of same sex weddings and openly gay couples participate fully in our congregation. Several have children in our religious school.

Some headway has even been made in parts of the Orthodox community. The powerful film "Trembling before God" focuses on the pain of rejection of young gay Orthodox Jews and the challenge this presents to some of the most sensitive Orthodox rabbis. Rabbi Steven Greenberg, graduate of the rabbinical program at Yeshivah University, published a self-revelatory book, exploring traditional sources alluding to homosexuality throughout history, titled "Wrestling with God and with Man". It's an exceptional read.

But the following, published recently in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz, demonstrates how even the smallest opening to gay men is condemned by virtually all authorities. Those who may be sympathetic are cowed into silence. Here's the story of a courageous exception, even if his opening is a tiny light in the tunnel.

The article "London Rabbi Preaches Inclusivity Toward Gay People and Sets Off an Uproar" written by Avital Chizhik-Goldschmidt

"In a packed auditorium in the Ner Israel synagogue in Hendon, northwest of London, a young, polished Rabbi Joseph Dweck stood up. His usual eloquence gave way to a long introduction, betraying a certain trepidation.

"He knew he was wading in dangerous waters. 'This is not an easy shiur to give,' he began, referring to the sermon.

"'Chances are, I will upset everybody in this room tonight. I am going to say something that will strike an uncomfortable chord. I knew that would be the reality when I decided to give this lecture, and I decided to do it anyway. Nobody is talking about it,' he said.

"'In the Orthodox world, very few people are talking about it. I don't claim to have all the answers...I may say things you may be quite upset at me for saying. All of that risk I am taking tonight, and I am being extremely vulnerable in front of you, in the recording, and whoever else is going to hear me. And I am sure that people will hear this lecture.'

A brief pause.

"'I have spent time, years and years, thinking about this issue, researching this. Our sexuality is the foundation of our identity' it is so powerful a force within us that we are afraid of it. I say this with trepidation, because we are dealing with serious stuff.'

"The next hour was devoted to exploring the ancient history of homosexuality and the relevant Torah and Talmudic texts. Dweck probably had no idea what a backlash his lecture would unfurl.

"The senior rabbi of London's S&P Sephardi Community, Dweck received his rabbinic ordination from Ovadia Yosef, an Israeli Sephardi chief rabbi who died in 2013. And Dweck is married to Margalit, the granddaughter of Rabbi Yosef.

"'He is dedicated first and foremost to Torah, and his teachings are always in line with traditional Sephardi halakha,'
one community member said, referring to Jewish law. 'A man of integrity, he is always looking to learn from others and the world round him.'

"Dweck's lecture emphasized that homosexual acts themselves are forbidden by Torah--and that this won't change. But it questioned society attitudes toward gay community members, condemning those who question whether to allow openly gay men to receive usual Torah honors.

"'Should we put them (gay people) up to the Torah? What kind of a stupid question? You know how many people we should not put up to the Torah if we start that kind of scrutiny? You won't be able to fill a minyan, you won't be able to fill the synagogue, you won't be able to read the Torah if that's the kind of scrutiny you'll start making,' he said.

"'Should we start asking whose wife goes to mikvah? When and how? And what their sexual history is? Should we start doing a witch hunt like that? There are plenty of skeletons in everybody's closet. Let's not sit on a high horse,' he added his voice rising.

"'The entire revolution of feminism and homosexuality in our society is a fantastic development for humanity. The world is moving towards love. And if you're not on the bandwagon, well then fine, you can stay back.'

..."In the past two weeks since the lecture hit YouTube, Dweck has been condemned by numerous leaders in the Haredi, or--from the hard line ultra-Orthodox, Sephardi community---from the hard line Rabbi Yosef Mizrachi, taking to his YouTube pulpit, to Rabbi Aharon Bassous of London's Golders Green community requesting that the London rabbinical court investigate Dweck. The controversy went all the way up to Israel's Chief Rabbinate.

"Rabbi Eli Monsour, a popular Syrian rabbi in Brooklyn, encouraged Israel's Sephardi chief rabbi, Rabbi Yitzhak Yosef, to involve himself in Brooklyn politics and write a letter against Dweck.

"Dweck, affiliated with the Sepharic Community Alliance, was set to spend the summer lecturing in Deal, New Jersey--but that is now up in the air, with Monsour trying to block it 'Dweck is his own thinker, he is tremendously popular, and he draws hundreds to his classes,' One community member said. 'The right sees him as a threat.'

"Under pressure from Monsour, Yosef the chief Sephardi rabbi denounced the general issue of homosexuality, as 'nonsense and heresy that were uttered in opposition to the foundations of our faith in the holy Torah.

"Yet his brother, Rabbi David Yosef of Har Nof in Jerusalem, a frequent fundraiser in Monsour's community, felt the chief
rabbi's letter wasn't harsh enough. So, he took to his pen too, writing in Hebrew: 'Do whatever you can to prevent him from entering your holy camp, and without question he cannot be allowed to serve in any communal capacity'.

"Some rabbis have stood up to defend Dweck from the onslaught. 'If a mistake does appear in a rabbi's words, one must find the appropriate way to react, in the way of peace,not in the way of a burning strong fire, even if it is well-intentioned', wrote Rabbi Sammy Kassin of the Shehebar Sephardic Center.

"But most leaders, community members say, have been deafeningly silent, too afraid to comment.

..."'No surprise about the tempest this maverick 'rabbi' has stirred up,' one Syrian community member posted on Facebook. 'Just this summation of his positions leaves me shaking my head in disgust. He has zero respect for other rabbis and holds his personal opinions and interpretations as a way out for the homosexual community. Let him find a reform or conservative congregation that will lap his views up. He has no place in an Orthodox rabbinical setting.'

..."The infighting surges in matters of gender, too. In one Brooklyn synagogue this past Simchat Torah women were permitted to have their own hakafot (dancing--albeit without Torah scrolls). It caused a scandal in the community.

"'The black hats were infuriated', one woman present said. 'We come from Middle Eastern values-women just don't get involved in ritualistic practices.'"


Friday, June 9, 2017

Is the Exodus Story the Unifying American Story?

I often have the opportunity to be a guest lecturer in university World Religion classes. My role as a Jewish leader/authority is to provide insight into Jewish thought, practices and values to young people who have no other experience. Each time I devote several minutes to introduce the concept of a Master Story.

Every nationality, every religion, every organization has a distinctive master story, usually an origin narrative that contains several of the central motivating values of the group. The Christian master story is centered on the life of Jesus, with particular emphasis on Jesus's death and resurrection. Some might see the American master story as a people who fought for independence against tyranny. From this origin emerges an uniquely American skepticism on governmental power. Others might claim the American master story to be that other than native Americans, we are all immigrants from some place else leading to a powerful value that no religion, race or nationality can claim it is authentically American to the exclusion of everyone else.

I then claim that the Jewish master story is that we were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt. God heard our cry and with the assistance of Moses led the slaves to freedom. God brought them to Mt. Sinai where they received a revelation and continued on to the Promised Land wandering for 40 years through the desert. Thus liberation from oppression is central to an understanding of a Jewish Weltanshauung, a powerful Jewish world view.

Shortly before Passover New York Times Op-Ed columnist David Brooks bemoaned that as Americans we have lost our moorings, i.e. became disconnected from our master story. What is the American story according to Brooks? He claims that it is the same Exodus Story. We spent some time at our Passover Seder this year considering Brooks' assertion. For the most part we rejected this notion.

P.S. Underlying Brooks' recent Op-Ed pieces is his personal struggle as a dedicated conservative whose Republican party and conservative leaders have abandoned his view of direction. The election of Donald Trump goes against everything Brooks stands for.

Brooks has returned to the Exodus narrative in columns on April 3 and May 26,

"The Unifying American Story" by David Brooks, published in the New York Times, March 21, 2017

"One of the things we've lost in this country is our story. It is the narrative that unites us around a common multigenerational project, that gives an overarching sense of meaning and purpose to our history.

"For most of the past 400 years, Americans did have an overarching story. It was the Exodus story. The Puritans came to this continent and felt they were escaping the bondage of their Egypt and building a new Jerusalem.

"The Exodus story has six acts: first, a life of slavery and oppression, then the revolt against tyranny, then the difficult flight through the howling wilderness, then the infighting and misbehavior amid the stresses of that ordeal, then the handing down of a new covenant, a new law, and then finally the arrival into a new promised land and the project of building a new Jerusalem.

"The Puritans could survive hardship because they knew what kind of cosmic drama they were involved in. Being a chosen people with a sacred mission didn't make them arrogant, it gave their task dignity and consequence. It made them self-critical. When John Winthrop used the phrase 'city upon a hill' he didn't mean it as self-congratulation. He meant that the whole world was watching and by their selfishness and failings the colonists were screwing it up.

"As Philip Gorski writes in his new book, 'American Covenant,' which is essential reading for this moment, the Puritans understood they were part of one covenant and had ferocious debates about what the covenant meant.

"During the revolution, the founding fathers had that fierce urgency too and drew just as heavily on the Exodus story. Some wanted to depict Moses on the Great Seal of the United States. Like Moses, America too was rebinding itself with a new covenant and a new law.

"Frederick Douglass embraced the Exodus too. African-Americans, he pointed out, have been part of this journey too. 'We came when it was a wilderness...We leveled your forests; our hands removed the stumps from the field...We have been with adversity, and by the help of God will be with you in prosperity.'

"The successive immigrant groups saw themselves performing an exodus to a promised land. The waves of mobility--from east to west, from south to north--were also seen as Exodus journeys. These people could endure every hardship because they were serving in a spiritual drama and not just a financial one.

"In the 20th century, Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders drew on Exodus more than any other source. Our 20th century presidents, made the story global. American would lead a global exodus toward democracy--God was a God of all peoples. Reinhold Niebuhr applied Puritan thinking to America's mission and warned of the tint of national pride.

"The Exodus story has many virtues as an organizing national myth. It welcomes in each new group and gives it a template for how it fits into the common move from oppression to dignity. The Book of Exodus is full of social justice--care for the vulnerable, the equality of all souls. It emphasizes that the moral and material journeys are intertwined and that for a nation to succeed materially, there has to be an invisible moral constitution and a fervent effort toward character education.

"It suggests that history is in the shape of an upward spiral. People who see their lives defined by Exodus move, innovate and organize their lives around a common eschatological destiny.

..."The Exodus narrative has pretty much been dropped from our civic culture. Schools cast off the Puritans as a bunch of religious fundamentalists. Gorski shows how a social-science, technocratic mind-set has triumphed, treating politics as just a competition of self-interested utilitarians.

"Today students get steeped in American tales of genocide, slavery, oppression and segregation. American history is taught less as a progressively realized grand narrative and more as a series of power conflicts between oppressor and oppressed.

"The academic left pushed this reinterpretation, but as usual the extreme right ended up claiming the spoils. The people Gorski calls radical secularists expunged Biblical categories and patriotic celebrations from schools. The voters revolted and elected the people Gorski calls the religious nationalists to the White House--the jingoistic chauvinists who measure Americanness by blood and want to create a Fortress America keeping the enemy out.

"We have a lot of crises in this country, but maybe the foundational one is the Telos Crisis, a crisis of purpose. Many people don't know what this country is here for, and what we are here for. If you don't know what your goal is, then every setback sends you into cynicism and selfishness.

"It should be possible to revive the Exodus template, to see Americans as a single people trekking through a landscape of broken institutions. What's needed is an act of imagination, somebody who can tell us what our goal is, and offer an ideal vision of what the country and the world should be."

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

50 Years after the Six Day War; 50 Years of Palestinian Resistance; 50 Years of Occupation

Today, June 5, is my 68th birthday. The Six Day War began on the day I turned 18. Exactly one year later on the first anniversary of the war Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan assassinated Bobby Kennedy who was running for the Democratic nomination for president following Lyndon Johnson's declaration that he would not run for another term. The date of the murder was no coincidence, but a purposeful angry protest against American support for Israel.

Many have opined recently on what this 50th anniversary means. 50 years of inconclusive conflict; 50 years of continuing terrorist attacks; 50 years of Israeli domination over the lives of millions of basically disenfranchised Palestinians all of which is altogether infuriating.

Abba Eban, Israel's distinguished foreign minister during the Six Day War, several years later declared that "the Arabs never miss an opportunity to miss an opportunity." However accurate, in truth Israel too has not exploited opportunities to move toward a resolution of the conflict. I mean not to equate the two, but simply to claim that fault lies in both camps. It's not just a willingness to take chances for peace, but a willingness to take steps like suspending expansion of settlements that is difficult for many of us committed Israel's survival to understand. To listen to the pronouncements of the right element in Israel's current governing coalition, is to admit that many of those in power in Israel are not interested in a solution to the conflict, at least one that would allow the Palestinians to be master over their own destiny.

As a Zionist I can certainly be frustrated by weak to non-existent Palestinian leadership. But as a Jew I am much more angered by what appears to be lousy and counter-productive poor Israeli diplomacy.

However Bret Stephens reminds us in an editorial in the June 3 New York Times the view from Israel. I find his words quite moving, but at the same time, it does not recognize the situation from the other side. Despite overstatements and some inaccuracies, I think it worthwhile to read Stephens' piece. One of the pitfalls of reviewing history is choosing where to begin, in this case 1967. The story may sound quite different if you begin in 1947 or some other starting point. In the future I will present viewpoints different from those below:

Six Days, 50 Years of War

"In June 1967 Arab leaders declared their intention to annihilate the Jewish state, and the Jews decided they wouldn't sit still for it. For the crime of self-preservation, Israel remains a nation unforgiven.

"Unforgiven, Israel's milder critics say, because the Six-Day War, even if justified at the time, does not justify 50 years of occupation. They argue, also, that Israel can rely on its own strength as well as international guarantees to take risks for peace.

"This is a historic nonsense.

"On June 4, 1967, the day before the war, Israel faced the fact that United Nations peacekeepers in Sinai, intended as a buffer with Egypt, had been withdrawn at Cairo's insistence; that France, hitherto Israel's ally, had imposed an arms embargo on it; and that Lyndon Johnson had failed to deliver on previous American assurances to break any Egyptian blockade of the Israeli port of Eilat.

"On June 5, the first day of the war, the Israeli government used three separate diplomatic channels to warn Jordan--then occupying the West Bank--not to initiate hostilities. The Jordanians ignored the warning and opened fire with planes and artillery. Some 6,000 shells landed on the western side of Jerusalem alone.

"On June 19, 1967--nine days after the end of the war--the Israeli cabinet decided it would offer the return of territories conquered from Egypt ad Syria in exchange for peace, security and recognition. The Arab League categorically rejected peace with Israel at its summit in Khartoum later that year.

"In 1973 Egypt and Syria unleashed a devastating surprise attack on Israel, puncturing the myth of Israeli invulnerability.

"It took a decade after 1967 for the Egyptian government of Anwar Sadat finally to accept Israel's legitimacy. When he did he recovered every inch of Sinai--from Menachem Begin, Israel's right wing prime minister. Syria remains unreconciled.

"It took another decade for Yasir Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization to recognize Israel and formally forswear terrorism. But its pledges were insincere. Only after the Soviet Union's collapse and Arafat's disastrous support for Sadam Hussein in the gulf war did the P.L.O. finally seem to get serious. It led to the Oslo Accords of 1993 and further Israeli withdrawals.

"In 2000, at Camp David, Israel offered Arafat a state. He rejected it. 'I reject that in 2000 he missed the opportunity to bring that nation'--Palestine--'into being,' was Bill Clinton's bitter verdict on the summit's outcome. Within two years Arafat was calling on a million 'martyrs' to march on Jerusalem.

"In 2005, another right-wing Israeli government removed its soldiers, settlers and settlements from the Gaza Strip. Two years later Hamas seized control of the territory and used it to start three wars in seven years.

"In 2008, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert offered a Palestinian state offered a Palestinian state in Gaza and 93 percent of the West Bank. The Palestinians rejected the proposal out of hand.

"This is a truncated history. Israel is not a nation of saints and has made its mistakes. The most serious of those is proliferation of West Bank settlements beyond those in historically recognized blocs.

"But before we fall prey to the lazy trope of "50 years of occupation,' inevitably used to indict Israel, let's note the following:

"There would have been no occupation, and no settlements, if Egypt and its allies hadn't recklessly provoked a war. Or if the 'international community' hadn't fecklessly abandoned Israel in its desperate hours. Or if Jordan hadn't foolishly ignored Israel's warnings to stay out of it. Or if the Arab League hadn't arrogantly rejected the possibility of peace.

"A Palestinian state would also most likely exist if Arafat's successor, Mahmoud Abbas--now in the 13th year of his elected four year term--hadn't rejected it again nine years ago, and if Gazans hadn't turned there territory into a terrifying model of Palestinian statehood and f the United Nations didn't treat Hamas's attacks on Israel as a nuisance but Israel's self-defense as a crime against humanity.

"The cover of a recent issue of The Economist purports to answer the question 'Why Israel Needs a Palestinian State.' The argument isn't wrong. It just isn't wise.

"Israel needs a Palestinian state to safeguard its democratic future--in the long term. But the character of such a state matters at least as much as its mere existence. The Middle East doesn't need another failed in its midst. Israel doesn't need another Hamastan on its border. Palestinian in the West Bank don't need it over their heads.

"In 1967 Israel was forced into a war against enemies who then begrudged it the peace. Egypt, at least, found in Sadat. The drama of the Six-Day War will close when Palestinians find theirs."

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Shocking, Fascinating or Merely Interesting 2: French Jews, Anti-Semitism and the Election

As Americans and as Jews we breathed a sigh of relief when Emmanuel Macron handily defeated Marine Le Pen two to one. Although we know next to nothing about Macron, we feared the possible victory of Le Pen, leader of France's National Front, a far right party with an anti-Semitic history. The Macron victory demonstrated a check on the populist elections in Great Britain and the U.S.

Below are longish excerpts from two related pieces: a. an April article from the New York Times incredibly demonstrating an effort by Le Pen's party to court Jews, and b. the Jerusalem Report's exploration into Jewish concerns over Macron's leadership, despite his receiving 90% of its vote.

"France's Far Right, Once Known for Anti-Semitism, Courts Jews", New York Times, April 5, 2017 by Amanda Taub

"Paris--For years, France's far-right National Front was synonymous with anti-Semitism. Its founder, Jean Le Pen, was notorious for anti-Semitic outbursts--including a comment that the Holocaust was just a detail of history.

"But since Mr. Le Pen's daughter Marine took over the party's leadership in 2011, the National Front has attempted a remarkable about-face: Today the party positions itself as a champion of French Jews.

"Although Ms. Le Pen, one of the front-runners in the coming presidential election, still alludes to anti-Semitic stereotypes on the campaign trail, she now promises that her party will be the protector of French Jews.

"It is a surprising twist that has resonated with some French Jews who feel abandoned by what they see as the government's tepid response to the anti-Semitic violence that has plagued the country for years.

"But experts say the National Front's shift may be intended more as a message to non-Jewish voters, looking for moral cover in supporting a party that vilifies their primary sources of fear and anger: Muslims and immigrants.

"The National Front has long been widely viewed in France as toxic, but by declaring itself a shield for French Jews, it may have found an effective way to allow many voters to justify breaking a taboo. That reflects a concept known a 'moral license.' Framing the party as a champion of one minority enables voters to justify supporting its agenda in suppressing another.

"The result is not a more racially tolerant National Front, but rather a party that has found near unprecedented success in persuading mainstream voters--many of whom may be quietly sympathetic to its anti-immigrant agenda--to embrace far-right ideas once considered off-limits.

"'They are instrumentalizing us,'said Jonathan Arfi, vice president of the Council of Jewish institutions in France, which goes by the French acronym CRIF. 'We are a small minority,' he said, 'but we have an important symbolic role to play.'

"Mr. Arfi can point to the precise month when the new age of anti-Semitism began in France: September 2000, the beginning of the second Palestinian intifada, or uprising. That brought about attacks on Jews in France, particularly those who lived in poorer neighborhoods on the outskirts of large cities--areas that had gradually become dominated by Muslim immigrants from North Africa and their families. Since then anti-Semitic violence has remained high.

"But the French government and civil society were slow to respond to the attacks, Jewish leaders felt. For many years, Mr. Arfi said, politicians were in denial about the attacks, preferring to see them as an 'imported conflict' rather than as resurgent French anti-Semitism, although he was careful to note that the response has improved in recent years.

..."In 2014, Ms. Le Pen summarized her message to France's Jews in an interview with the French magazine Valeurs Actuelles. Her party, she argued, 'is without a doubt the best shield to protect you against the one true enemy, Islamic fundamentalism.'

..."No mainstream Jewish organization in France has endorsed the National Front...But the group's massage may be about more that recruiting Jewish voters.

"'By saying they will protect the Jews against anti-Semitism, people understand that they mean they will be tough with the Muslims,' Mr. Arfi said. 'Everything is between the lines.

..."By recasting the National Front as a vote in defense of Jews rather than a vote to suppress Muslim immigrants, Ms. Le Pen is giving mainstream voters a way to embrace racial supremacist politics without feeling racist.

"In a State of Fear: French Jews Voted Overwhelmingly for Emmanuel Macron, But Are Concerned He Will Pander to the Country's Large Arab Minority and Fail to Protect Them", May 29, 2017, The Jerusalem Report by Bernard Edinger, Paris

"Center-rightist Emmanuel Macron, 39, who was voted in by 66% to 34% over the far-right Marie Le Pen is France's youngest national leader since Napoleon Bonaparte more than 200 years ago.

"Exit polls indicated that France's half million Jews, Europe's largest Jewish community, voted for Macron by about 90% to Le Pen's 10%, but he was not their first choice. Their preferred candidate was former right-wing premier Francois Fillon, whose platform was especially strong against Islamic fundamentalism. However, Fillon, the initial favorite to win the election, became mired in a sudden corruption scandal that resulted in his elimination after the first two rounds of voting.

"Macron, who will be the European Union's youngest head of state, has never held elected office before and only created his 'En Marche!'(Onwards) movement a year ago.

"'His rise has been absolutely extraordinary,' marveled conservative politician Jean-Francois Cope, a son of Jewish immigrants from Romania and Tunisia, speaking on TV. 'Every political figure has had to surmount obstacles, but what this man has accomplished is equivalent to having crossed the Red Sea dry-footed,' said Cope, jokingly comparing Macron's achievements to those of the Biblical prophet Moses.

"But, for many French Jews, the vote took place under a new pall of uncertainty and anxiety after the murder in Paris on April 4 of an Orthodox-Jewish French physician, Dr. Sarah Halmi, 66.

..."Sarah Halmi was thrown to her death from the window of her fourth-floor apartment in the often rough Belleville area of northern Paris after a neighbor, 27-year-old Kada Traore, also a Muslim Frenchman of black-African origin, broke into her home in the middle of the night.

..."What has jarred French Jews is that the national media has been entirely silent about the murder, and that there was practically no coverage whatsoever, except in Jewish media, of a subsequent protest march by 1,200 Jews in Halmi's neighborhood. Participants said local Arab youths provoked them from windows with death threats, and several Arabs were beaten as a result.

..."A leading (non-Jewish) expert on the contemporary French-Jewish community, social scientist Jerome Fourquet tells the Jerusalem Report, 'If you are an ordinary French citizen not specially interested in Jewish issues, and if you're not Jewish, there is virtually no chance that you would have heard anything about this case.

"'This reinforces the feeling of French Jews that they are not heard as they should be, and it also reinforces their anxiety about their safety,' he says. 'The event did fuel Jewish support for Fillon who had a very strong anti-Islamic platform, and who, according to my calculations, got more than 50% of French Jewish votes in the first round of the election, whereas nationally, he got 20.1%.

..."'We are French and we share the preoccupation of the French public. But, as Jews we also have specific interests, and the main one is that of the security of our families against those who threaten and attack us as Jews.'"

"Our main preoccupation is with antisemitism by local Arabs. The French press and public still does not seem to have understood that old-style European antisemitism has been replaced by an antisemitism brought to France by Arab immigrant populations as part of their culture.

..."Antisemitic acts in France dropped by 75% from last year in comparison to the years immediately preceding, when the number of such acts reached more than 1000 per year, including an average of one act of physical violence every other day of the year.

..."'I voted for Macron in the runoff round in the election as did most Jews. He looks like a decent human being, he's apparently 'a good boy', but we wonder whether he will have the strength to defend us when we are attacked. Will he have the willpower to withstand the pressure of his voters, including the Arabs? We're a small community compared to the Arabs here--6 million of them, half a million Jews. We must remain vigilant and CRIF (the political leadership of the French Jewish community) has to be on guard,' he says.

..."Macron made all the right political noises to reach out to France's Jews, including a highly publicized visit to the French Shoah Memorial in the last days of the election campaign, a visit to Israel in 2015 and pledges to oppose the anti-Israel BDS campaign and any move to unilaterally recognize a Palestinian state.

..."Alain Finkelkraut, son of Polish-born Jewish death-camp survivors and France's best known living philosopher, said he feared French Jews would suffer from what he predicted would be attempts by Macron to reach out to and appease the country's restive Muslim population. Referring on Jewish radio to the choice between Macron--whom he distrusts--and Le Pen, Finkelkraut said, 'A disaster saved us from a catastrophe."

..."We certainly hope the new government will also take our security concerns into consideration,' says 'Benayoun'. The sweeping under the carpet of Sarah Halimi's murder by the outgoing administration has deeply shaken French Jewry and we hope things will change."

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

A Bittersweet Resolution to Lost Art

Many Jewish families have pursued the return of art that was stolen by the Nazis during the Second World War. Such episodes have been recorded in books, articles and movies. It is amazing that such pursuits continue over 70 years after the end of the war. There are thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of pieces of art, collectibles, and other valuable stolen precious possessions that will never be returned, not just because there is resistance by current possessors, but most of the owners are no longer alive and records are mostly non-existence. My own grandparents owned a valuable library of first edition books. In order to facilitate my grandparents departure from Berlin the library was sold for well under their value to Goebbel's girl friend.

The New York Times published an interesting recent story titled "After Decades, a 'Bittersweet' Resolution Over Lost Art" on 5/28 written by Nina Siegel:

"Amsterdam--It was 1937, Vienna, when a Jewish couple named Heinrich and Anna Maria Graf bought a vibrant 18th-century oil painting of the Grand Canal in Venice with the Punta Della Dogana in the background. The work held pride of place in the living room, the highlight of their small but treasured art collection.

"One year later, Germany annexed Austria and the Grafs and their twin 6-year old daughters, Erika and Eva, had to flee the country. They put their art into storage and left for Italy, then France--where Heinrich was held for more than a year in an internment camp for Jews--then Spain and Portugal and ultimately New York. By the time they settled in Forest Hills, Queens, it was 1942, and all their possessions had been looted by the Nazis.

"The prized painting had been the focus of a 70-year recovery effort by the Graf family and its heirs--and one that is now ending on a ambivalent note. Sotheby's in London is preparing to sell the work, by the artist Michele Marieschi, at an old master's auction in July, following a restitution settlement between the heirs and a trust on behalf of the now-deceased owner, whose identity has not been released. The auction house has estimated the painting's value at $650,000 to $905,000.

"The painful and circuitous history reflects how looted artworks that have been in private hands for decades are coming to market after settlement agreements with the rightful owners, in a way that tries to address their tainted past. These agreements may not result in the return of the paintings to their heirs, but the compromise does provide at least a form of resolution and some compensation to the heirs, and brings the artworks out of hiding.

"The heirs of the Grafs were not able to recover the painting, 'La Punta Della Dogana e San Giorgio Maggiore' (1739-40), because the deceased owner and the trust declined to return the work. Instead, the parties reached an agreement that involves sharing the proceeds of the Sotheby's sale. No one involved would disclose details of the deal.

"Stephen Tauber, a son-in-law of the Grafs, said in a telephone interview that the resolution was 'bittersweet'. His wife, Erika, died in 2012 at 79; her sister, Eva, lives in a retirement community in Canton, Mass...

"Like many paintings, looted during World War II the painting went through several hands after the Grafs had to leave it behind....The Graf family had been searching for the painting since 1946, when Heinrich Graf filed a claim for the work in Austria. In 1998, the two daughters, assisted by Art Loss Register, a database of lost and stole art that also provides search services...The sisters asked a British judge to issue an injunction against Christie's to release the name of the owner. The Art Loss Register and the Vienna Israelite Community then tried to reach out to the owner on behalf of the sisters, but to no avail: He refused to talk.

..."The Graf family and the estate reached the restitution agreement in December. Mr. Tauber, 85, and his son, Andrew Tauber, 54, a lawyer in Washington, were able to spend an hour with the painting when it was in the Paris Sotheby's offices last month.

"'Finally, finally, after decades of hearing about this painting, I was getting to see it with my own eyes,' Andrew Tauber said. 'Knowing that my grandparents, with whom I was very close, loved this work so much, it was a very emotional experience'"

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

Who Gave Jared and Ivanka Permission to Fly on Shabbat?

JTA (Jewish Telegraphic Agency) published a piece today, May 24, by Ben Sales titled "Jared and Ivanka's Rabbis Don't Know Who Gave Them Permission to Fly on Shabbat"

This is a subject about which everyone is surely intrigued!!!

"New York (JTA)--Which Orthodox rabbi gave Jared and Ivanka permission to fly on Shabbat?

"We don't know who it was, but we know who it wasn't.

"It wasn't Haskel Lookstein who oversaw the First Daughter's conversion to Judaism.

"It wasn't Marvin Hier, who gave the invocation at President Trump's inauguration.

"It wasn't Levi Shemtov, the spiritual leader at the synagogue in Washington, D.C., that Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump have attended.

"And it wasn't Shmuley Boteach, the celebrity rabbi who has lavished praise on the president and taken a series of selfies with his advisers.

"Those rabbis, on the record, denied giving their stamp of approval to the Friday night flight to Saudi Arabia--though none of them criticized the decision, and all refrained from commenting on it.

"Rabbi Hirschy Zarchi, who ran the Chabad at Harvard, where Kushner was active as a student, was unavailable for comment.

"Flying on a plane is one of many activities prohibited by Jewish law from sundown Friday to nightfall Saturday, principally because igniting the engine involves lighting a fire. Shabbat laws can be broken, however, to save a life, a concept known in Hebrew as 'pikuach nefesh'.

"The question--much debated on social media by both fans and detractors of Trump's daughter and son-in-law-- is whether participating in Trump's first foreign trip as president qualifies as life-saving. (Some of the discussions were respectful inquiries into Jewish law. Others were, let's face it, pure snark of the 'frum-shaming' variety.) Observant Jews with political power have faced questions like these for ages--most famously, perhaps Sen. Joe Lieberman of Connecticut and Jack Lew, President Barak Obama's treasury secretary.

"When dealing with the fate of a nation, how far does pikuach nefesh stretch?

"'If a person would be in a circumstance, with that level of responsibility, it's not just that isolated event he has to calculate," said Rabbi Menachem Genack, CEO of the kosher division of the Orthodox Union, an umbrella Orthodox group. 'He'd have to think not just about this event. What are the consequences down the line? The definition of pikuach nefesh might be broader than it usually is.'

"Genack and Shemtov both cited Israeli officials who were given permission to pick up the phone--also prohibited--to give or receive directives on Shabbat, even if the call was not directly related to military operations. Likewise, religious Israeli soldiers will continue serving on Shabbat when necessary, even during (relative) peacetime.

"Shemtov, who runs the Washington synagogue commonly known as TheShul, generally has a narrow definition of saving a life. He will give elected officials who consult with him permission to break Shabbat laws only if they are personally needed in the situation, it cannot be deferred until Saturday night or someone's life is actually at stake.

"He also said there is no blanket answer for this question; it must be dealt with on a case-by-case basis.

"'I've been getting questions like this for about 20 years, and I've only found it appropriate twice to allow any exemption from the rules,' Shemtov said. 'They involved immediate and unequivocal situations affecting preservation of life.'

"Shemtov recalls walking miles with Lieberman from synagogue on Shabbat to the Capitol, where Liberman would cast votes. Lew also endeavored not to break Shabbat, but told The Tablet that he would take calls and drive in a car when necessary.

"Although a range of activities are prohibited on Shabbat, Jewish law does not treat them all equally. Some are deemed to be prohibited by the text of the Torah, while others are prohibited by rabbinic consensus, which is considered less severe. Genack noted, for example, that driving a car, which involves igniting the engine, is considered more severe than riding in a car.

"As it happens, Kushner and Trump also reportedly received permission ahead of Trump's inauguration on a Friday, Jan. 20, to ride in a car that night. Which rabbi gave that allowance? That's also unknown. But every rabbi that JTA spoke to for this article cautioned against criticizing these decisions without being privy to all of their details.

"'What's at stake long term or short term?' Genack wondered. 'You never know what the next steps will be. I'm happy that I'm not in that situation, that I have to deal with these problems.'"

Sunday, May 21, 2017

Filipino Caretakers Make a Life in Israel

Those of us who love Israel and have visited often, warts and all (and there are plenty of those), strive to understand the life that is lived by ordinary Israelis. The article by Ruth Margalit that appeared in the May 7 New York Times Magazine provides insight into a side of life that tourists and visitors will never see. Israel provides visas for foreign workers though when their visas end, they want them to return to their native lands. How are these strangers from an alien culture treated? How do these foreign workers perceive life in the Jewish state? What happens when they make a life for themselves in Israel and want to stay?

All too often the media only provides us with news of the Arab-Israeli conflict or about Israeli internal politics. Here is a side of Israeli life not often exposed.

I commend the entire article to your attention, but here are excerpts:

"...her mother dissuaded her from going to Hong Kong: it was too hard there, she told her daughter. Instead she encouraged Joson to apply for work in Israel, where among the population of only eight million, there are about 30,000 Filipino caregivers (legal and illegal). Except for diplomacy, caregiving remains the only profession open to Filipinos in Israel.

"In the three years since her arrival, Joson has become attached to Israel. A practicing Catholic, she marvels that she gets to live and worship freely in the Holy Land and feels a sense of kinship with Israelis who, like her, are 'hardworking and very family oriented.' If anything, she wants to be more like the Israelis she knows, like her employer's children, who speak their minds freely. 'They will get angry, but after an hour or two, they're O.K. again,' she said. 'Us Filipinos, when we get angry it will take us a few days to forget'.

..."The most pressing need for workers is in the caregiving profession. In 2009, there were fewer than 250,000 Israelis over the age of 80; by 2059, there will be well over a million...Women from the Philippines--who were initially brought in small numbers by Israel's Defense Ministry to care for disabled soldiers--have come to dominate home care in Israel, so much so that the word 'Filipina' has become synonymous in Hebrew with 'metapelet'--'caregiver'. (I once overheard one elderly woman in Tel Aviv tell another, 'My Filipina is from Moldova'.)

..."Foreign caregivers are required to be on call at all hours--one of the only groups in Israel unprotected by the law regulating the daily hours of work and rest. Most are not allowed to look for work outside a given area and cannot quit more than two jobs in two years, except under extreme circumstances. The reasoning behind this, the government argues, is to prevent caregivers from abandoning employers in underserved areas of the country.

"But the restrictions stretch well beyond geography: With the exception of siblings, foreign workers are not allowed to enter the country along with any immediate family members; nor are they allowed to marry, or their visas will be revoked. Until 2011, they could not bear children and continue to work in Israel. Their work permits are valid for up to five years and three months, and are meant to ensure their transitory presence...A caregiver from the Philippines pays, on average, $8316 to find work in Israel--a sum that usually comes saddled with high interest and takes the worker two years to pay off.

..."Still, in the hierarchy of overseas destinations for Filipinos, I was told, Israel ranks somewhere below the United States, Europe and Australia, but far above Asia and the Middle East in desirability.

"But it is not only financial considerations that draw Filipino workers to Israel. Despite the country's restrictive laws, Filipinos told me countless stories of Israeli openness and acceptance, of caregivers becoming part of the intricate mosaic of Israeli life. I spoke to a 54-year old woman named Leila Tugade who spent three years in Israel in the late '80s and met and married an Israeli man, then moved with him to Oregon, where her aunt needed her help running a small hotel. Tugade still dreams of moving back to Israel when she retires. 'Israel is like my second home, not America,' she told me. Tugade appreciated Israelis' emphasis on family and on tradition, their love of the country.

"Others pointed to Israelis' lack of formality, to a sense of fast intimacy that develops between employer and caregiver. As Darcy Margallo, who has been in Israel for 20 years (and currently works for a relative of mine), said: 'I have friends in Canada and London, but they all want to come here. There's more freedom here. You tell your employer that your boyfriend or girlfriend is coming, and the employers says, 'Go meet him!' or 'Tell him to come here!' It is now commonplace to see obituaries in the Hebrew press that include, alongside relatives' names, a tribute to a 'dedicated caregiver.''

..."In 2003, the Filipino community in Israel came under an unexpected spotlight when Rose Fostanes, a 46-year old Filipino caregiver, auditioned for the Israeli version of the singing competition 'The X Factor.' A short video clip aired before Fontanes's performance, mentioning that she lived in South Tel Aviv with three other caregivers; 'I love my job because I like to take care of old people,' Fostanes said. The clip drew knowing chuckles from the audience. Short and plump, in a green shirt and jeans. Fostanes represented the unlikely diamond-in-the-rough heroine audiences love to embrace Her rendition of Shirley Bassey's 'This Is My Life' became a national sensation; more than half of all Israeli households tuned in to watch her win the season's finale. But the praise she received was tinged with condescension: She was shown offering to make a sandwich for the supermodel Bar Refaeli, the show's host, and the judges kept saying how 'proud' they were of her.

..."There are many stories of Filipino caregivers who have converted to Judaism: One employer I spoke to in the city of Rehovot nicknamed the Filipino who worked for her the Rebbitzin, because of her strict adherence to Jewish law. Keeping kosher, as a domestic worker in Israel, 'becomes part of your life,' Santos, who is a former caregiver told me.

..."For some Filipinos the quest to assimilate into Israeli society has included marrying Israeli men. Yet here, too, the Interior Ministry has piled on the obstacles. An internal ministry document, leaked to Haaretz in 2010, chided a Filipino worker who applied for citizenship after falling in love with an Israeli man, for 'waiting for a knight so she could get a visa'. The lawyer who represented the caregiver and her Israeli partner in suing the ministry called its officials 'demographobes.' Pregnant migrant workers used to face a choice: leave Israel within three months of giving birth, or stay and work in the country but send your baby away. The Supreme Court has since ruled the order unconstitutional. Nevertheless, it is being enforced de facto, worker advocates say: A foreign worker who gives birth is required to name the baby's father, which could result in the loss of both parents' visas."

Note: I fell in love with this piece, because it shines a light on the interplay between these two cultures and demonstrates a tenderness on the part of both, often despite political restrictions.

Thursday, May 18, 2017

Shocking, Fascinating or Merely Interesting

So much to read and so little time....

Special nuggets are often buried in long or longish news or op-ed pieces that we do not have the time to savor. I plan to use this space to share some of those treasures you might have overlooked.

My focus is on news as it affects us as Jews. That may be about our condition here in the U.S. or abroad. It may concern Israel or issues that as Jews must be high on our moral agenda.

I will provide all sources so that you may explore any issue further.

Item #1 Buried in the middle of today's NY Times op ed piece by Ronen Bergman, titled "What Trump Threatened in Israel" is the following shocker:

"The report of the presidential leak was greeted with anger, but not with great surprise. At a meeting between American and Israeli intelligence officials a few weeks before Mr. Trump's inauguration, the Americans recommended to the Israelis that they refrain from passing to his White House sensitive secret information, or material that could lead to the baring of sources or methods of intelligence gathering--at least until it became clear that the Trump team was not linked inappropriately to the Russians or exposed to extortion by Moscow. An Israeli who took part in that meeting told me if was 'a bizarre scene".

Shocking! American intelligence warned Israelis not to share sensitive information for fear that the new administration might be traitors in sharing that info with the Russians! This is not fake news...

Monday, January 16, 2017

Final Report from India: The Taj Mahal

Our visit to India ends in Agra, some 200 kilometers (120 miles) southeast of Delhi, home of the Taj Mahal. We arose early as our driver and guide were picking us up at 6am to get there as close to sunrise as we could. It was a hazy morning, so all we could see at first was a general outline of the structure.

The building is set on a 42 acre property amid formal gardens. As the minutes passed and we moved closer the magnificent structure came into clearer view. You simply can't take your eyes off of it. It's entirely made of white marble and it actually glistens in the morning sun light.

The Taj Mahal was commissioned in 1631 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his wife Mumtaz Mahal following her death while giving birth to her fourteenth child. She is entombed there underground as is her husband who died some years later. The Mughals were Muslim conquerors who controlled vast areas of Northern India, Pakistan, Bangaladesh and lands beyond for hundreds of years. Mumtaz was his beloved Persian wife. (Only 6 of her 14 children survived, 4 boys and 2 girls. One son eventually killed his three brothers and imprisons his father in order to assume power himself. It was one of the two surviving daughters who saw to it that her father was buried next to his favorite wife at the Taj Mahal. Such is life at the top.)

To the west of the Taj is a separate building to function as a Mosque (so as to face west to Mecca, with another structure on the other side simply for symmetry.)

The building with beautiful inlaid colored stones took 10 years to build, cost 32,000,000 rupees or in today's money, $827,000,000 employing 20,000 full-time artisans. The marble was undergoing a cleaning as we visited which happens every 4-5 years. Seeing the newly cleaned sections gave us an idea of what it looked like new. Since marble is such a hard stone, the building probably looked almost 400 years ago exactly as it looks today Architect for the original project was a young man named Ustad Ahmad Lahanni, clearly one of the greatest architects of history.

Yes, we have all seen photos. It's even better in person.

Saturday, January 14, 2017

Hindu Jerusalem: Veranasi on the Ganges

There is a myth about Jerusalem, namely that beneath its surface there lies a magnet. And this magnet attracts Jewish, Christian and Muslim religious nuts. We flew into the city of Veranasi this week. We were transferred to our hotel which was unlike any of our previous accommodations. One might call it low end, but the location is rather spectacular inasmuch as we are rather high up overlooking the Hindu "holy of holies", the River Ganges.

Our guide explained that centuries ago Maharajas built palaces along the river of rivers. As you look up from the shoreline, the remnants of those palaces remain, stately towers that once commanded the view. However they have deteriorated badly. This area remained prime real estate until a century ago, but since then the elite have moved elsewhere.

The streets just behind the facade are tiny alleyways, in some ways similar to the twisting lanes of Jerusalem's Old City. But in addition to pushing crowds of residents and pilgrims, motor scooters and motorcycles roar in starts and stops and more interestingly if not confounding are the myriad of cows that meander and/or stand or lie wherever they will leaving their fecal deposits along the way. (As you ply the streets and alleys, you want to look up to see the buildings, temples, shrines and fascinating people, but you do so at great risk of tracking on your shoes that better left in the streets.)

But I digress...Hindus, Buddhists and Jains alike revere the Ganges, for Hindus the traditional home of the god Shiva, the destroyer of evil, portrayed more often than any of the other gods. If you have ever viewed Hindu art, you will have seen a figure with leg raised in a dancing position with four or more arms often in a ring of fire. What you may not have noticed is that Shiva is simultaneously stepping on a human figure, a representation of evil.

Pilgrims come to Varanasi because they want to bathe in the river at least once in their lifetimes. They come throughout the day, men as well as women in the freezing waters of the early morning to fulfill this religious obligation. They come at the end of their lives or are brought here by next of kin to be cremated on the banks of the River Ganges. Thus there are many elderly who come to live out the end of their days here. Many are extremely poor and find space in a local ashram and rely on free food or begging to live.

Our first night here we went out on a small boat where we could view the families bringing their loved ones to the cremation pyre. The body wrapped in sheets is carried down the steps by the closest relatives on a stretcher. The body is put in the Ganges. The oldest son, guided by the family barber, since priests we were told don't like to be involved, purchases the necessary wood. When the fire is aflame the body is put in place. Only men actively participate and there is no expression of emotion. The burning takes three to four hours at the end of which the ashed and remaining bones are put in the Ganges. For each body a separate pyre is arranged. There can be as many as 15 cremations occurring simultaneously and they come 24 hours a day, seven days a week without prior notice or reservations. All this takes place amid the cows and dogs that flow freely through the area. There are two separate areas along the river where this takes place. For a visitor the sight is transfixing. All is done with great devotion. Thus it is believed that the dead gain freedom from the cycle of life and death. (Our guide told us that although a Hindu, he was not a believer, did not engage in Hindu ritual, but when his father died, he fulfilled all of the rituals as prescribed.) Certainly not all cremations take place in Varanasi. There are a few other places along the Ganges where cremations take place as well as cities and towns all over India.

Quite apart from the cremations and bathing, we witnessed public Hindu rituals that involved Brahman priests, ceremoniously blowing on a conch shell (like a shofar), with a ritual of music and other surrounded by hundreds of pilgrims. We saw people who had come in groups to commemorate their ancestors. There are various strange people who are known to have renunciated all connections to all exterior aspects of life, ascetics, those who believe in magic and spirits.

It's all actually not only quite a sight, but in some very profound sense very moving. I have never experienced a place like this before and it is quite difficult to express what the experience is in words.

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Jews in India: Cochin and Mumbai

How very ecstatic I have been over the last couple of days to engage Jews and visit synagogues in two ancient Indian communities! These are not the only places of Indian Jewish settlement, but they are certainly among the most illustrious. While the Cochin/Ernakulum Jewish community is in immanent danger of extinction with relatively few and aging remaining members, the Mumbai community with some 3-5000 members continues to conduct regular services in its eight ongoing congregations. The long history of both communities is also evidenced in its cemeteries. Just as we learn that the Jew stranded on a desert island had two synagogues, determining that one of them he would never enter, so in both Cochin/Ernakulum and Mumbai to this day their synagogue communities have experienced and in fact continue to experience competition and even animosity.

The Cochin/Ernakulum community has long been divided between so-called white and black Jews, where for much of their history the white Jews refused to recognize or deal with their "black" brethren. Scholars believe that 3000 years ago King Solomon imported certain items from India, which some claim as evidence of the earliest Jewish settlement. Jews may also have found their way to the Malabar coast as part of the exile following the destruction of the First (586 BCE) and Second Temples (70 CE). This is the origin of the Malabari or Black Jews. They were welcomed and provided land and trade privileges. The "white" Jews are descendants of Jews who arrived as a consequence of the Spanish Inquisition. Reasons for their falling out and distrust is open to dispute. The white Jews claimed that the black Jews were descendants of slaves, perhaps the wives of early Jewish sailors and therefore not halakhically Jewish. Some claim that the division was a carry over of the Hindu caste system in which lighter skinned individuals were considered of a higher, more noble caste than darker skinned Hindus. To this day the white Jews and their synagogue receive more recognition than the Black Jews.

Although the Jews became victim of local skirmishes, they suffered when the Portuguese brought the Inquisition with them. After 1948 after Israel became a state most Cochinis (as well as Jews from other Indian communities)moved to Israel, where several hundred thousand live to this day. However many retain their fond memories of their Indian communities and return periodically for visits.

We began our tour in Cochin/Ernakulam by visiting three of the seven extent synagogues of the Black Jews. They were beautiful, having been newly renovated by the state. Next door to the first we met an elderly couple who return to Cochin for three months every year from Israel. Their 12 grandchildren had joined them for winter break, but had already returned. The husband was a scientist and had received many awards in Israel for his agricultural advancements. It was pointed out to us that with intention, in the immediate area was a Hindu Temple, a Muslim Mosque and a Christian Church. Each respected the rites of the others. At the third synagogue we met Babu. I had read about him and was anxious to meet him. He owns a pet/aquaria shop, at the back of which is the synagogue, which he personally oversees. Years ago recognizing that the future was bleak for continuity, the rabbi of the white synagogue taught Babu the techniques for the kosher slaughter of chickens, because otherwise holiday celebrations would be meatless. Though uncomfortable because he is not personally religious, Babu continues to provide kosher chickens for the holidays to the Jews who remain. Babu is ever conscious of the many slights inflicted on them, by their fellow Jews.

While the Black Jews have their synagogues across the bay in Ernakulum, the white Paradesi synagogue on Jew Street is in Cochin. The entire area around all the synagogue originally had Jewish residents, today basically only 94 year old Sarah Cohen remains in Cochin. The street approaching has many stores and gift shops, some carrying Jewish items and shop owners trying to get one's attention by calling out Shalom Aleichem, none of them are Jewish. The Paradesi Synagogue is probably the most beautiful and the Christian caretaker told us to return when the crowds left after 5pm so that we could take photos. Each synagogue contains beautiful chandeliers. All of the Torah scrolls are housed at the Pardesi. The cemetery around the corner is only opened for funerals. They fear that vandals will steal the headstones.

The Mumbai experience was entirely different. Again we visited three of the eight extent synagogues. However here rather than being divided Black and White, the two communities are Baghdadi and Bene Israel Jews, each having built and attending their own synagogues. The Bene Israel arrived 2000 years ago, arguably the oldest Jewish community in India and constitutes 90% of the Jewish population. They claim descent from the lost tribes of Israel, landing shipwrecked. They adopted to this day the local Marathi language. These early settlers were bolstered by immigrants in the 18th century. We visited two lovely synagogues and at the second met the shammas' 16 and 12 year old daughters. At the first they took pride in having teens who can read Torah and at the second they have a cantor, celebrated a Brit last month and will celebrate two weddings in the next two months.

The first synagogue we visited in Mumbai was a Baghdadi synagogue with small membership. This was originally built by the famous Sassoon family. However it was very disconcerting that it was in such bad repair. It was once clearly elegant and it looked as if repairs were beginning. It would be a shame if this piece of Jewish history were lost to neglect. It was in this synagogue that they maintained a daily minyan.

I was bowled over by the history and to see Jewish life here in this remote area of the world, remote at least for Jews.

Saturday, January 7, 2017

Food and Elephants


We have eaten at Indian restaurants in New York and Portland. A sustaining memory from those visits is hot and spicy. Carol was even convinced that eating veggie was spicier than eating meat. I'm not sure that is the case, but that was her theory. Since she cannot endure spicy food, she was convinced that she would live for our entire trip on a diet of rice and more rice. I on the other hand like moderately spicy food, but not so hot that I feel my mouth on fire. I was also under the apparently false impression that the farther south you go the hotter the food gets. However as we are traveling primarily in the south, everyone tells us that the food is hotter in the north.

Since most people who visit India get sick at one point, we have been scrupulous in observing certain rules. 1. Only drink bottled water, even for brushing teeth and cleaning tooth brushes. Take care not to take in water when showering or swimming. 2. Do not eat vegetables or fruit unless peeled. 3. Do not eat street food, which by the way often looks delicious. Because many though not all Hindus are vegetarians (and Jains refrain from foods grown in the ground such as potatoes) all restaurants indicate whether they are veg or not and those that are not still indicate which foods contain no animal product. That makes life simpler for us. Since kosher meat is not available, we only eat veggie.

Well, we have been eating up a storm. Carol and I both hoped to return home having lost weight. Nice try...Breakfast is included at virtually all hotels. That means eating buffet style. We begin with various things simmering in chaffing dishes, various India wheat products, juice, watermelon and fabulous papaya. Then the kitchen prepares eggs or omelets. Coffee, tea and bottled water always offered. Buffets are never good for loosing weight.

On the road we learned early on that Indians eat thali for lunch. On an open banana leaf, about a dozen offerings come in small dishes and then a heap of rice is plopped in the middle. Occasionally peanut powder is put on the rice and drowned in ghee (clarified butter). Waiters come around filling up some of the options and adding additional mountains of rice. The offerings are various kinds of mixed cooked vegetables, some spicy, some less so. They always add a yogurt and a sweet concoction. If you are going to do it as an Indian, you wash your hands and then eat with your right hand only mixing the veggies in the rice and stuffing it in your mouth. No left hands allowed. That's reserved for something else...Aliens can request fork and spoon.

Dinner is like breakfast only many more offerings. You can eat from the buffet that includes soup and desert or order a la carte. A la carte offerings are invariably large. We have become fond of vegetable concoctions with paneer, which they translate as cottage cheese, but it's like no cottage cheese I am familiar with. It more resembles tofu. In addition to bottled water I often order a beer with dinner. A friend is convinced that beer kills some of the germs that might be hiding in the food. A good excuse for additional protection. Indians are not good with desserts. Baked things and chocolate are a waste of calories. Fruit is great and ice cream is not bad.


Yesterday we had a great time with elephants. It's a two hour kick. First they give you a ride. You sit on a rubber pad on the elephant, legs stretched as wide as possible. These are broad animals. These is rod for your feet and something to hold on too. As soon as Carol got on, she wanted off. It just didn't feel good. I, on the other hand, went for the ride. You feel really tall sitting up there. I thoughts I was in one of those early fifties movies.

After the ride we headed over to feed one of the elephants. We were given wedges of acorn squash, rind and seeds included. You stick it right in their mouths and discover something strange: they have a tongue that is anchored a the front of their mouths, so the tongue pushes the food back. It's unexpected. And they watch you with that one eye that they can see you with, because you are standing next to them.

Then it's off to a bath. A huge elephant lays down in a large pool of water. We then get in sans shoes and socks and rolling our pants up. We were given brushes and begin to scrub. The elephant is so relaxed she looks almost as if she is falling asleep. Carol and I were scrubbing along with a woman who was there for the 6 hour program. The elephant then sat on its hind legs and as instructed the women climbed up on the elephant's back and then on command lifted its trunk and soaked her. Although unexpected she was a good sport. The elephant soaked her a good four or five times more.

I can only hope these amazing creatures are well treated. We have all read about the elephant poaching threatening their very survival. What a treat.

Next stop Cochin...

Wednesday, January 4, 2017

Weddings, Integration and Cashews

With a country that is predominantly Hindu, but home to a sizable Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist and Jain minorities, I am fascinated to know whether integration is valued and whether it happens. As an outside visitor one can only get a sense from reportage, anecdotes and inquiring of locals. India certainly wants to give the impression that it all works with Temples, Mosques and Churches predominating in every city, town and village, with the Muezzin's call to Islamic prayer heard over the loudspeaker five times a day in addition to Hindu chants blasting. And yet one wonders especially after learning that Prime Minister Modi represents an openly Hindu-first party, where he stands accused of leading anti-Muslim riots that left hundreds dead when serving in another capacity.

And yet...yesterday morning on our way to breakfast we saw a gorgeous bride in her gown being photographed prior to her church wedding later that morning. (The reception and party later that day took place at our hotel 'til late at night.) Attending the bride that morning was her best friend wearing a chador clearly marking her as an observant Muslim. We learned that they had met in high school and remained close for the intervening ten years. As we spied on the proceedings, we noticed one man straight out of Saudi central casting, dressed in white robes and kaffieh. Inquiring discretely we learned that he was standing in for the groom's Christian parents who were living in Dubai.

Our guide said that Hindu-Christian marriages were quite common in recent years, but Muslim intermarriages less so. These cross-cultural marriages undoubtedly were a result of increasing romantic, rather than arranged marriages, where Hindus rarely married out of their caste, much less out of their faith community.


The splendid resort at which we spent two nights has also some relationship with a local cashew factory here in Kollam. We received special permission to visit only to discover an enormous operation ...sufficiently enormous to produce 27,000 kilos, i.e. 60,000 pounds of cashews daily. The factory we visited was one of three and they alone employed 700 people. The cashews are grown in India and shipped from all over the African and Asian continents. They are then shipped world-wide. Odds are that if you eat a cashew today, it was processed here.

The huge sacks are emptied into a roaster where they turn black. Then they are cracked open either in a two "man" operation with the first man who could lose a finger or two placing them one at a time in a cracker and the second flicking the cashew out of the shell OR they are individually sledged open by women sitting on the floor. Then the nut is re-roasted to loosen the fiber coating.

In the next three halls sit hundreds of women for 8-10 hours a day scratching off the fiber and sorting the cashews into various quality bowls.. This back breaking work was simply unimaginable...a scene from an earlier century. We were informed that this processing costs about $1/pound, which translates into meager income from this largely female crew. What an eye opening experience.I suspect the management expected us to leave very impressed. We walked away with something else.

I couldn't help but think about Donald Trimp's promise to bring back lost employment. These jobs you couldn't pay Americans enough to do. And when this process is mechanized most of these workers will be unemployed. And so it is with the steel and coal industries. Some have moved overseas, but most thanks to improved technology simply no longer exist.

Sunday, January 1, 2017

On Our Own...sort of

Happy New Year!

Well, our traveling companions have either returned directly home to Portland, or headed in various directions for other adventures. They were an interesting group. There was Ted, the professor from Concordia University, who knows and loves this area of southern India where he grew up. Our scout was JP, a retired Indian native who knows Ted from childhood and loves him like a brother. Dave is a retired art teacher from Concordia who along with Carol adds a lot about architecture and how things are made. Two other participants know Ted, from a committee they sit on in Vancouver dealing with mentally challenged adults. Three of the young women are Concordia students, who will get college credit for the trip if they submit a paper. We traveled together in a small van, our luggage secured each day of travel on the roof by our trusty driver, who negotiated the traffic that I described in prior blogs. It was better not to watch, but if you did, you often held your hands in front of your eyes. Often the other vehicle (or cow or pedestrian) was missed by inches.

On the first night of Hanukah which was also Christmas eve as we gathered for dinner, I wished everyone a Merry Christmas and gave out the Santa hats Carol and I had bought. I explained that this was also the first night of our Jewish festival. I brought out the Hanukiah and candles that I had stuffed in our luggage and gave a brief explanation of the Maccabean revolt and their internal and external battle with Helenism without which Judaism most likely would have assimilated into the dominant culture. Carol and I then sang the brachot and lit the first candle. The rest of the days we lit our Hanukiah in our room at night.

Some other events of note:
1. Arrangements were made for us at one stop for a concert of traditional Indian music. Three drummers, a violinist, a singer and a woman who played a most unusual string instrument called a veena. They played several distinct pieces, but to the untrained ear, they sounded much the same.
2. We spent a day at Auroville, a community of several thousands, determined to live at one with the land and each other. This was the brainchild of a famous Hindu guru and his partner who had been referred to simply as Mother. We learned from a Britisher who re-named himself Krishna about the richness of the soil and how so much of its produce we do not appreciate and waste. We then divided into three groups, prepared small plots of land and planted gardens. We then took of the produce that the land there had provided and chopped and helped to prepare our own dinner.
3. We spent a morning where elephants were cared for. When we arrived the baby and full grown elephants were being scrubbed from trunk to tail in a pool of water. They lay playfully as the young men washed every inch of these enormous animals. We stayed around as they were fed. A big bowl of some mixture awaited each elephant as the "trainer" placed big balls of the stuff in their mouths.
4. The biggest hit clearly was a kathakali demonstration prepared specially for us though several locals came to see as well. Though described as a form of dance, it really is theater. The three actors spent two full hours in preparation, mostly painting and having their faces painted by an meticulous artist and putting on their costumes. Then one of the three demonstrated how through movement of the eyes and face, body and feet that various emotions could be expressed. Then they put on a piece of a classic play in which an arrogant king takes on the Hindu god Shiva, who battles back. The king must learn humility in battling the god and eventually it is Shiva's wife Parvathi who makes peace between Shiva and the humbled king. We then spoke with the actors and took photos with them.

Kovalam was our last stop together. It is a beach community where Indians come to lay out, eat, play and buy scarves, saris, or jewelry. Emily, a young Concordia staffer, put a video together of our trip, which gave prime space to our Hanukah candle lighting. We took photos together, joked about funny moments and spoke of a reunion.

We have now commenced the last section of our journey, a guided tour just for the two of us. We are beginning that experience in the city of Kollam, a bit further north on the south west coast of India in the state of Kerala. The differences between Tamil-Nadu and Kerala are immediately obvious. The roads are better, the streets cleaner, the entire area wealthier. To some degree that has to do with the west coast getting more rain and the land being more fertile. No cows or goats on the road. We can see the ripe coconuts, mangoes and papayas as well as all kind of other produce hanging from the trees ready for harvest. Our driver told us that Kerala produces 12 distinct varieties of mangoes and 19 kinds of bananas! We've been eating red ones which are especially delicious.

Additionally each state elects its own government. Kerala presently elected a Communist government. As an American it is strange seeing posters and banners with a hammer and sickle. Kerala has the highest literacy rate in all of India. Interestingly our driver said that Tamil-Nadu by contrast has extensive social safety net for the poor and elderly.

Tonight we are in a truly gorgeous spa/resort on the banks of Lake Ashtamudi. I swam in the pool which we can see from our room, ate lunch and dinner and took a sunset tour on the lake. It's kind of dream-like. The cranes hang in the trees and ravens fly overhead. It's picturesque and gorgeous. It's not what I imagined when I thought about coming to India. The guests are predominantly Indians, though I would imagine of the more economically successful sort. They come here with extended families, three perhaps even four generations together. They are Hindu, Muslim (with women in chador) and Christian.

Catching Up

(This email I wrote a few days ago, but never completed. Even though we have moved on into the next Indian state of Kerala, I add this for a sense of completeness.)

Having come South through the SE Indian state of Tamil Nadu, today we arrived in Kanyakumari, the southern-most tip of India. When I stepped into the water here, I was standing at the very nexus of three major bodies of water: the Bay of Bengal along the east coast of India, the Arabian Sea running along the west coast of India and the great Indian Ocean. Here pilgrims and revelers gathered over this holiday end-of-year vacation enjoying themselves, playing in the water, waiting patiently in a very long line to board a ferry that would take them short distance to an outcropping not far off shore, and/or shop for trinkets and souvenirs. It was a sweaty 91 degrees.

Our congenial group of ten, students as well as non-students such as ourselves gathered by Ted Engelbrecht, professor at Concordia University have been traveling now for over a week. We began on Mahabalapuram, a beach town just south of the Chennai, state capital of Tamil Nadu state. This 2000 year old port city ruled for centuries by the Pallavas was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 11 temples have been excavated, in addition to 2 open air bas reliefs, and 5 rathas, monolith Indian rock cut architectures dating to the 7th century.

From there we visited Ginge, a historic capital on our way to a resort in Ponducherry, a port conquered successively by the Portuguese, Dutch, Danes, English and retaining a touch of French architecture and flavor. Walking through the old large market Carol and I saw Santa hats for 30 cents a piece. With Christmas eve approaching and it coinciding with the first night of Hanukah, we invested the $3 for Santa hats for everyone.

Heading inland our next stop was the amazing Hindu Temple at Chidambaram. For context the Temple complex is spread over 50 acres in the heart of the city. Two early competing Hindu traditions of Shiva and Vishnu worship are combined here demonstrating the effort to make peace by inclusion.

By contrast the religious structure/ rock fort at Trichy stands atop the only outcropping in an otherwise flat plain. To get there on climbs the 83 meters up approximately 400 steps barefoot, since the top is considered a holy spot for Hindus.

We made several other stops along the way south, visiting primarily historic temples, but also forts and palaces. It's sometimes hard to keep them all distinct, because of the many conquests over the centuries of various peoples.